Trudne dziedzictwo a turystyka. O dysonansie dziedzictwa kulturowego

Sabina Owsianowska, Magdalena Banaszkiewicz

Abstrakt


Celem artykułu jest omówienie koncepcji trudnego dziedzictwa (difficult/dissonant heritage) na tle rozwoju studiów nad turystyką i dziedzictwem w ostatnich dekadach. Punktem odniesienia dla naszych rozważań będzie analiza najważniejszych koncepcji oraz dokumentów, których zapisy wyznaczają światowe standardy definiowania pojęcia „dziedzictwo kulturowe”. Jak dotąd termin „trudne dziedzictwo” nie doczekał się polskiej definicji, mimo, że – jak można twierdzić na podstawie zachodniej literatury przedmiotu – badania zjawiska dysonansu związanego z dziedzictwem kulturowym cieszą się ugruntowaną pozycją. Oprócz wyjaśnienia i porównania dotychczas stosowanych pojęć oraz krytycznej analizy sposobów ich wykorzystywania zamierzamy przedstawić własną definicję trudnego dziedzictwa oraz wskazać przejawy dysonansu związanego z dziedzictwem na przykładzie obozu Auschwitz, który od lat funkcjonuje nie tylko jako kontrowersyjna atrakcja turystyczna, ale także, co dla nas istotne, ważne pole badawcze dla interdyscyplinarnej refleksji nad dziedzictwem.

Słowa kluczowe


dziedzictwo kulturowe; trudne dziedzictwo; dysonans dziedzictwa kulturowego; mroczna/ciemna turystyka; Auschwitz; wielokulturowość

Pełny tekst:

PDF

Bibliografia


Albert M.-T., Bernecker R., B. Rudollf, (red.), 2013, Understanding Heritage. Perspectives in Heritage Studies, De Gruyter

Ashworth G. J., 1994, From history to heritage, from heritage to identity, In search of concepts and models, [w:] G. J. Ashworth and P. J. Larkham, (red.), Building a new heritage: Tourism, culture and identity in the new Europe, Routledge, London, ss. 13–30.

Ashworth G., 2002, Holocaust tourism: The experience of Kraków-Kazimierz, “International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education”, 11(4), ss. 363–367

Ashworth G., 2004, Tourism and the heritage of atrocity: Managing the heritage of South African apartheid for entertainment, [w:] T. Singh, Tourism seeks new horizons, CABI Basingstoke

Ashworth G., J. Tunbridge, 2004, Whose Tourist-Historic City? Localizing the Global and Globalizing the Local, [w:] A. Lew, M. Hall, A. Williams (red.), A Companion to Tourism, Blackwell Publishing

Ashworth G., Tunbridge J., 1990, The Tourist-Historic City, London: Belhaven

Ashworth G., Graham, B., Tunbridge, J., 2007, Pluralising Pasts. Heritage, Identity and Place in Multicultural Societies, London, Ann Arbor, MI : Pluto Press.

Ashworth G., Hartmann R., (red.), 2005, Horror and human tragedy revisited: The management of sites of atrocities for tourism, NY: Cognizant, ss. 89–107

Askew M., 2010, The magic list of global status: UNESCO, World Heritage and the global states, [w:] Labadi S., Long C., (red.), Heritage and Globalisation, Routledge, Oxon, ss. 19-44

Augé M., 2004, Oblivion, MN: University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis

Bechtel D., 2013, Le tourisme mémoriel vers la Galicie: retours sur les lieux du conflit interethnique entre Polonais, Ukrainiens et Juifs, [w:] D. Bechtel and L. Jurgenson, Le tourisme mémoriel en Europe centrale et orientale, Paris: Petra, ss. 151-172

Beech J., 2000, The enigma of Holocaust sites as tourist attractions: The case of Buchenwald, “Managing Leisure”, 5(1), ss. 29–41

Biran A., Poria, Y., Oren G., 2011, Sought experiences at (dark) heritage sites, “Annals of Tourism Research”, 38(3), ss. 820–841

Bollag B., 1999, In the shadow of Auschwitz: Teaching the Holocaust in Poland, “American Educator”, 23(1), ss. 38–49

Bowman M. S., Pezzullo P. C., 2010, What’s so ‘dark’ about ‘dark tourism’?: Death, tours, and preference, “Tourist Studies”, 9(3), ss. 187–202

Burnett K.A., 2001, Heritage, authenticity and history, [w:] S. Drummond and I. Yeoman, (red.), Quality Issues in Heritage Visitor Attractions, ss.39–53

Chadha A., 2006, Ambivalent Heritage. Between Affect and Ideology in a Colonial Cemetery, “Journal of Material Culture”, 11

Charlesworth A., 1994, Contesting places of memory: the case of Auschwitz, “Environment and Planning D: Society and Space”, 12, ss. 579–593

Cohen E. H., 2011, Educational dark tourism at an in populo site: The Holocaust museum in Jerusalem, “Annals of Tourism Research”, 38(1), ss. 193–209

Cole T., 2000, Selling the Holocaust, from Auschwitz to Schindler: How history is bought

Czaplinski P., 2015, Kresowe narracje, [w:] Kresy Rzeczpospolitej. Wielki mit Polaków, “Polityka”, 2, ss.173-178.

Czarnecka I., 2011, Ostatnie starcie Estończyków z żołnierzem Armii Radzieckiej – czyli o kulisach sporu wokół pomnika wyzwolicieli Tallina 1991-2007, „Kultura i Historia”, 2.

Dallen T., Boyd S., 2006, Heritage Tourism in the 21st Century: Valued Traditions and New Perspectives, “Journal of Heritage Tourism”, 1/1, ss. 1-16.

Dworak D., Van Pelt R.J., 1996, Auschwitz 1270 to present, Norton, New York, Economy, Arnold, London

Fairclough G., 2009, New heritage frontiers, [w:] Heritage and Beyond, R. Palmer, ed., Council of Europe Publishing, ss. 29-42.

Feldman J., 2001, In the footsteps of the Israeli Holocaust Survivor: Israeli youth pilgrimages to Poland, Shoah memory and national identity, [w:] P. Daly, et al., eds., Building History: The Shoah in Art, Memory, and Myth, McGill European

Feldman J., 2008, Above the deathpits and beneath the flag: Youth voyages to Poland and the performance of Israeli national identity, Berghahn, New York.

Foote K., 1997, Shadowed ground: America’s landscapes of violence and tragedy, University of Texas Press, Austin

Galusek Ł., Jurecki M., 2007, Kresy na nowo odkryte. Wspólne dziedzictwo Polski i Ukrainy. Międzynarodowe Centrum Kultury, Kraków.

Glen M., 1991, If in doubt, call it heritage? [w:] Tourism Resources, Issues, Planning and Development, D. McDowell and D. Leslie, ed., University of Ulster, ss. 73–85.

Graham B., Howard P., 2008, Heritage and Identity, [w:] B. Graham, P. Howard, (red), The Ashgate Research Companion to Heritage and Identity, Ashgate

Graham B., Ashworth G., Tunbridge J., 2000, A Geography of Heritage: Power, Culture and Economy, Hodder Arnold Publication.

Gravari Barbas M., Bourdeau L., Robinson M., 2015, World Heritage and Tourism: From Opposition to Co-production, Ashgate.

Gruber R., 2002, Virtually Jewish. Reinventing Jewish Culture in Europe, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press.

Halbwachs M., 1992, On Collective Memory (Heritage Sociology Series), Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Harrison R., 2012, Forgetting to remember, remembering to forget: late modern heritage practices, sustainability and the ‘crisis’ of accumulation of the past, “International Journal of Heritage Studies”, 19/6, ss. 579-595

Hartmann R., 2005, Holocaust memorials without Holocaust survivors: The management of museums and memorials to victims of Nazi Germany in 21st century Europe, [w:] G. J. Ashworth, R. Hartmann, (red.) Horror and human tragedy revisited: The management of sites of atrocities for tourism, NY: Cognizant, ss. 89–107

Hartmann R., 2013, Dark tourism, thanatourism, and dissonance in heritage tourism management: new directions in contemporary tourism research, “Journal of Heritage Tourism”, ss. 162-188.

Hewison R., 1987, The Heritage Industry: Britain in a Climate of Decline, Methuen, London

Hirsch M., 2008, Generations of Postmemory, Poetics Today, 29:1 (Spring 2008), DOI 10.1215/03335372-2007-019

Hirsch M., 1997, Family frames: Photography, narrative, and post-memory, Harvard University Press, Cambridge

Huener J., 2003, Auschwitz, Poland and the Politics of Commemoration, 1945-1979, Polish and Polish-American Studies Series, Ohio University Press, Athens.

Ioannides M., Ioannides D., 2006, Global Jewish Tourism: Pilgrimages and Remembrance, [w:] Timothy D., Olsen D., (red.) Tourism, Religion and Spiritual Journeys, Routledge, London, ss. 156-171.

Jamal T., Kim H., 2005, Bridging the Interdisciplinary Divide: Towards an Integrated Framework for Heritage Tourism Research, “Tourist Studies”, 5(1), ss.55–83

Jamal T., Lelo L., 2010, Exploring the conceptual and analytical framing of dark tourism: From darkness to intentionality, [w:] R. Sharpley, P. Stone, red., The tourist experience: Contemporary perspectives, Routledge, New York, ss. 29–42

Kapralski S., Martyniak M., Talewicz-Kwiatkowska J., 2011, Romowie w KL Auschwitz, Oświęcim: Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau

Kidron C., 2013, Being There Together: Dark Family Tourism And the Emotive Experience of Co-presence in the Holocaust Past, “Annals of Tourism Research”, vol. 41, ss. 175–194.

Kirschenblatt-Gimblett B., 1998, Destination Culture: Tourism, Museums, and Heritage, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA

Kowalski K., 2013, O istocie dziedzictwa europejskiego. Rozważania, Międzynarodowe Centrum Kultury, Kraków.

Purchla J., (red.), 2006, Dziedzictwo kresów – nasze wspólne dziedzictwo?, Międzynarodowe Centrum Kultury, Kraków.

Kugelmass J., 1994, Why we go to Poland: Holocaust tourism as secular ritual, [w:] J. Young, red., The art of memory: Holocaust memorials in history, Washington, DC: Prestel, ss. 174–184

Kugelmass J., 1996, Missions to the past: Poland in contemporary Jewish thought and deed, [w:] Antze P., Lambek M. (red.), Tense past: Cultural essays in trauma and memory, Routledge: New York, ss. 199–214

Lehrer E., 2013, Jewish Poland Revisited: Heritage Tourism in Unquiet Places, Indiana University Press.

Lehrer E., Meng M., 2015, Jewish Space in Contemporary Poland, Indiana University Press.

Lennon J., Foley, M. (2000), Dark Tourism. The Attraction of Death and Disaster, London: The Thompson

Long C., Labadi S., 2010, Introduction, [w:] Labadi S., Long C., red., Heritage and Globalisation, Routledge, Oxon, ss. 1-16

Lowenthal D., 1998, The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History, Cambridge University Press, New York

Lowenthal D., 1985, The past is a foreign country, Cambridge University Press, New York.

Macdonald S., 2009, Difficult Heritage. Negotiating the Nazi Past in Nuremberg and Beyond, Routledge, London

Macdonald S., 2013. Memorylands. Heritage and Identity in Europe Today, New York, Routledge

Marcuse H., 2001, Legacies of Dachau: The uses and abuses of a concentration camp, 1933–2001, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

McKercher B., Du Cros H., 2002, Cultural Tourism: The Partnership Between Tourism and Cultural Heritage Management, Haworth Press, New York.

Miles W., 2002, Auschwitz: museum interpretation and darker tourism, “Annals of Tourism Research”, vol. 29, No. 4, ss.1175–1178.

Muzeum Sztuki Współczesnej Kraków, https://mocak.pl/polska-izrael-niemcy-doswiadczenie-auschwitz, dostęp: 27.09.2015

Müller J. W.(red.), 2002, Memory and Power in Post-war Europe: Studies in the Presence of the Past, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Nora P., 1989, Between Memory and History, Les Lieux de Mémoire, “Representations”, 26, Special Issue: Memory and Counter-Memory (Spring, 1989), ss. 7-24.

Nuryanti W., 1996, Heritage and Postmodern Tourism, “Annals of Tourism Research”, 23(2), ss. 249-260

Owsianowska S., 2010, Wielokulturowość w promocji turystycznej miejsca, [w:] E. Puchnarewicz (red.), Wielokulturowość a turystyka, Warszawa 2010.

Owsianowska S., 2014, Stereotypy w narracji turystycznej, „Turystyka Kulturowa”, 3/2014

Palmer C., 1999, Tourism and the symbols of identity, “Tourism Management”, 20 (3), ss. 313-322

Poria Y., Ashworth G. J., 2009, Heritage tourism: Current resource for conflict, “Annals of Tourism Research”, 36(3), ss. 522–525

Poria Y., Reichel A., Biran A., 2006, Heritage site management: Motivations and expectations, “Annals of Tourism Research”, 33(1), ss. 1172–1188

Purchla J., (red.), 2006, Dziedzictwo kresów – nasze wspólne dziedzictwo?, Międzynarodowe Centrum Kultury, Kraków

Rittner C., Roth J.K., 1991, Memory Offended: The Auchwitz Convent Controversy, Praeger, New York.

Salazar N., 2010a, Envisioning Eden: Mobilizing Imaginaries in Tourism and Beyond, Berghahn Books, Oxford, New York.

Salazar N., 2010b, The globalisation of heritage through tourism: balancing standardisation and differentiation, [w:] Labadi S., Long C. (red.), Heritage and Globalisation, Routledge, Oxon, ss. 130-146

Robinson M., Silverman H.(red.), 2015, Encounters with Popular Pasts. Cultural Heritage and Popular Culture, Springer, New York, London.

Rojek Ch., Urry J., (red.), 2002, Touring Cultures. Transformations of Travel and Theory, Routledge, London, New York

Sharpley R., Stone P.R., (red.), 2009, The Darker Side of Travel: The Theory and Practice of Dark Tourism, Aspect of Tourism Series, Channel View Publications, Bristol.

Smith M., 2009, Issues in Cultural Tourism, Routledge, London.

Smith L., 2006, Uses of heritage, Routledge, Abingdon

Smith M., Hall, D., 2006, Enlargement Implications for European Tourism, [w:] Hall, D., Marciszewska, B., Smith M., (red.)., Tourism in the New Europe. The Challenges and Opportunities of EU Enlargement, Oxfordshire: CABI, ss. 32-43

Timothy D. J., 2011, Cultural heritage and tourism: An introduction, Channel View Publications, Bristol

Timothy D. J., Boyd, S. W., 2003, Heritage tourism, Prentice Hall, Harlow

Tunbridge J., 2013, Problems in selling heritage for tourism : A cautionary tale, with insight from European's (pen)insular margins, [w:] J. Kaminski, A. Benson, D. Arnold, (red.), Contemporary Issues in Cultural Heritage Tourism, Routledge, London and New York

Tunbridge J. E., Ashworth G.J., 1996. Dissonant Heritage. The Management of the Past as a Resource in Conflict, Wiley, Chichester

Urry J., 2007, Spojrzenie turysty, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa

Valderrama F., 1995, A history of UNESCO, UNESCO, Paris

Walewska D., 2015, Turystyka błogosławiona i przeklęta, http://archiwum.rp.pl/artykul/1286933-Turystyka-blogoslawiona-i-przekleta.html, dostęp: 21.09.2015

Wight A., Lennon J., 2007, Selective interpretation and eclectic human heritage in Lithuania, “Tourism Management”, 28(2), ss. 519–529

Williams P., 2004, Witnessing genocide: Vigilance and remembrance at Tuol Sleng and Choeung Ek, “Holocaust and Genocide Studies”, 18(2), ss. 234–254

Williams S., 2009, Tourism geography: A new synthesis, Routledge, London.

Young K., 2009, Auschwitz-Birkenau: The challenges of heritage management following the Cold War, [w:] W. Logan, K. Reeves, (red.), Places of pain and shame: Dealing with “difficult heritage”, Routledge, London, ss. 50–67

Xin S., Tribe J., Chambers D., 2013, Conceptual Research in Tourism, “Annals of Tourism Research”, vol. 41, ss. 66-88.

Zubrzycki G., 2006, The Crosses of Auschwitz: Nationalism and Religion in Post-Communist Poland, University of Chicago Press.

Zubrzycki G., 2013, Narrative Shock and (Re)Making Polish Memory in the Twenty-first Century, [w:] F. Vatan and M. Silberman, (red.), Memory and Postwar Memorials: Confronting the Violence of the Past, Pelgrave, New York, ss. 95-115


Odniesienia

  • Obecnie brak jakichkolwiek odniesień.


Copyright (c) 2015 Magdalena Banaszkiewicz, Sabina Owsianowska


Copyright ©  Turystyka Kulturowa 2008-2018. ISSN 1689-4642